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Bring chiles and 2½ cups cold water to a boil in a small saucepan. Remove from heat, cover; let soften, 30 minutes.
Meanwhile, lay a clean kitchen towel or a double layer of paper towels on a large plate. Place tofu on top and cover with another towel or double layer of towels. Cover with another plate and weigh down with something heavy. Let sit 30 minutes, then cut into ¾" pieces.
Drain chiles, reserving soaking liquid. Tear chiles open and remove seeds; discard. Blend chiles, shallots, garlic, lemongrass, galangal, cilantro stems, makrut lime zest (if using), salt, peppercorns, half of makrut lime leaves (if using), and ½ cup reserved soaking liquid in a blender, scraping down sides and adding more soaking liquid as needed, until a rough paste forms. Set curry paste aside.
Heat oil in a large skillet over medium-high and cook tofu until browned on all sides, about 5 minutes total. Add green beans and ½ cup reserved curry paste and cook, tossing occasionally, until beans are coated and beginning to soften, about 3 minutes. Add ½ cup reserved soaking liquid, cover skillet, and cook until beans are cooked through and liquid is reduced by half, about 5 minutes. Stir in fish sauce, sugar, and remaining makrut lime leaves and cook until fragrant, 1 minute. Serve over rice.
Do Ahead: Red curry paste can be made up to 3 days ahead. Cover and chill.