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Allow chicken to sit on the counter for about 30 minutes to come to room temperature. Preheat oven to 375 degrees F. Lightly coat the bottom of a Dutch oven with vegetable oil.
Pat chicken dry with paper towels. Season the inside cavity of the chicken liberally with salt and pepper. Stuff cavity with onion, celery, thyme sprigs, rosemary sprigs, and garlic cloves. It’s okay if you can’t fit everything in there – just stuff as much in as you can!
Tie the legs together with kitchen twine and tuck the wings underneath the bird. Place the chicken (breast-side up) in the Dutch oven.
Drizzle or brush the melted butter over the outside of the chicken. Season liberally all over with salt and pepper. Place the lid on the Dutch oven.
Bake the chicken covered at 375 degrees F for 55 minutes. Carefully remove the lid (steam will escape), increase the oven temperature to 400 degrees F, and cook for an additional 15-20 minutes uncovered, or until the skin is golden brown. The chicken is done when a thermometer inserted in the thickest part of thigh reads 170°-175°.
Remove chicken from the pot and allow to rest for 10-15 minutes before carving.