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The night before you're ready to make the dough for your bread, discard all but about ⅓ of your starter and feed it with 100 grams of whatever flour you've been using and 100 grams of water (or a splash or two more to make a thick pancake-like batter).
The next morning, in the bowl of a stand mixer or a large bowl, whisk together the dry ingredients and then add the wet ingredients (including the ripe starter), beating on low until well combined. Increase the speed to medium high and mix for 5 minutes. If mixing by hand, mix vigorously for 5-7 minutes.
Cover the dough and allow it to rise in a warm, draft-free area until doubled in size, about 3-4 hours (sourdough always takes longer to rise). Place the risen dough in the refrigerator overnight.
The next day, remove the dough from the fridge and turn it out onto a well-floured surface. If using baking soda, add ¼-½ tsp to top of dough and begin kneading dough until smooth.
Form into a round and turn over into a floured banetton basket or in a floured tea towel-lined bowl, or shape into a round on a square of parchment paper. Cover and allow it to rise until puffed and noticeably larger, but not doubled in size, about 2-3 hours.
Towards the end of the rising time, place Dutch oven with lid (or baking steel or stone and shallow pan) into the oven and preheat it to 500° F for 30 minutes.
When the dough has finished rising, carefully flip it out onto a sheet of parchment paper and slash (score) it with a lame or sharp serrated knife. Open the oven door, carefully place the loaf in the Dutch oven, parchment and all, and replace the lid. Alternatively, slide the loaf, parchment and all, onto a baking steel or stone and pour one cup of hot water into shallow pan. Immediately close the oven door and drop the temperature to 450° F. Bake the bread for 40 minutes. If using a Dutch oven, remove the cover and continue to bake for another 20 minutes. If using baking steel or stone, bake the bread for a full 60 minutes.
Remove the bread from the oven and allow to cool before slicing.